# Integration of the POE Model and Metaphoral Thinking in Student Worksheets: Improving Mathematical Reasoning Abilities in the Modern Education Era

### Abstract

**Purpose of the study: **This research aims to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of POE-based (Predict, Observe, Explain) student worksheets using a metaphorical thinking approach to enhance the mathematical reasoning abilities of class 9 students at Public Middle School.

**Methodology: **This research aims to find out how to develop student worksheets based on POE (Predict, Observe, Explain) through a metaphoral thinking approach oriented towards the mathematical reasoning abilities of junior high school students in class 9 and find out the effectiveness of student worksheet products based on POE (Predict, Observe, Explain) through Metaphoral Thinking approach to the mathematical reasoning abilities of Public Middle School 7 Banjit students in class 9.

**Main Findings: **Validation results showed material experts rated the worksheets at 89.4%, media experts at 94.9%, and language experts at 75%, all with high appropriateness. Small group trials averaged 86%, field trials 87%, and educator trials 97.2%, all with very good criteria. The paired t-test (t_{hitung} = 12.7 > t_{tabel} = 2.02) confirmed the effectiveness of the POE-based worksheets using the Metaphorical Thinking approach in enhancing mathematical reasoning abilities..

**Novelty/Originality of this study: **The novelty of this study lies in developing and validating POE-based student worksheets integrated with a metaphorical thinking approach to enhance junior high students' mathematical reasoning. This innovative strategy combines cognitive and imaginative techniques, fostering deeper comprehension and problem-solving skills.

### References

P. Zhang and S. Li, “Associative cultural landscape approach to interpreting traditional ecological wisdom: A case of Inuit habitat,” Front. Archit. Res., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 79–96, 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.foar.2023.09.008.

S. Bogale, K. M. Mishore, A. Tola, A. N. Mekuria, and Y. Ayele, “Knowledge, attitude and practice of lifestyle modification recommended for hypertension management and the associated factors among adult hypertensive patients in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia,” SAGE Open Med., vol. 8, 2020, doi: 10.1177/2050312120953291.

J. C. González‐salamanca, O. L. Agudelo, and J. Salinas, “Key competences, education for sustainable development and strategies for the development of 21st century skills. A systematic literature review,” Sustain., vol. 12, no. 24, pp. 1–17, 2020, doi: 10.3390/su122410366.

A. Astalini, D. Darmaji, D. A. Kurniawan, F. P. Sinaga, M. Z. Azzahra, and E. Triani, “Identification the 2013 curriculum teacher’s book to determine the character values of class X students on circular motion material,” J. Pendidik. Sains Indones., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 545–558, 2023, doi: 10.24815/jpsi.v11i3.28567.

P. R. Amnuel, F. P. Sinaga, and F. R. Winda, “Description of students’ critical thinking ability of urban school in physics material,” Edufisika J. Pendidik. Fis., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 217–225, 2023, doi: 10.59052/edufisika.v8i2.26531.

M. Souto-, “Validation of non- formal and informal learning in formal education : Covert and overt,” Wiley, pp. 365–379, 2021, doi: 10.1111/ejed.12464.

S. J. H. Yang, H. Ogata, T. Matsui, and N. Chen, “Human-centered artificial intelligence in education: Seeing the invisible through the visible,” Comput. Educ. Artif. Intell., vol. 2, no. January, p. 100008, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.caeai.2021.100008.

L. An et al., “Challenges, tasks, and opportunities in modeling agent-based complex systems,” Ecol. Modell., vol. 457, pp. 1–37, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2021.109685.

P. Shrivastava, M. S. Smith, K. O. Brien, and L. Zsolnai, “Transforming sustainability science to generate positive social and environmental change globally,” One Earth, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 329–340, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.oneear.2020.04.010.

A. N. Fauziyah, M. Ramadan, P. R. Gumede, and I. N. Udosen, “Development of digital book bilingual physics learning media using kvisoft flipbook for high school class X semester 1 subject of newton’s law,” J. Educ. Technol. Learn. Creat., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7–15, 2023, doi: 10.37251/jetlc.v1i1.618.

E. V Soboleva, E. G. Sabirova, N. S. Babieva, M. G. Sergeeva, and J. V Torkunova, “Formation of computational thinking skills using computer games in teaching mathematics,” Eurasia J. Math. Sci. Technol. Educ., vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1–16, 2021, doi: 10.29333/ejmste/11177.

D. Wahidin and L. A. M. Romli, “Students critical thinking development in national sciences and mathematics competition in Indonesia: A descriptive study,” J. Pendidik. IPA Indones., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 106–116, 2020, doi: 10.15294/jpii.v9i1.22240.

D. Adharini and T. Herman, “Critical thinking skills and self-confidence of high school students in learning mathematics,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2020, pp. 6–12. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1521/3/032043.

N. Erceg, Z. Galić, and A. Bubić, “Normative responding on cognitive bias tasks: Some evidence for a weak rationality factor that is mostly explained by numeracy and actively open-minded thinking,” Adm. Law J., vol. 60, no. 9354, pp. 53–77, 2020, doi: 10.35979/alj.2020.02.60.53.

H. Hikmat, “The Readiness of Education in Indonesia in Facing The Society Era 5.0,” J. Basicedu, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 2953–2961, 2022, doi: 10.31004/basicedu.v6i2.2526.

S. S. Dewanti, B. Kartowagiran, J. Jailani, and H. Retnawati, “Lecturers’ experience in assessing 21st-century mathematics competency in Indonesia,” Probl. Educ. 21st Century, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 500–515, 2020, doi: 10.33225/pec/20.78.500.

H. Hendriana, R. C. I. Prahmana, M. G. Ristiana, E. E. Rohaeti, and W. Hidayat, “The theoretical framework on humanist ethno-metaphorical mathematics learning model: An impactful insight in learning mathematics,” Front. Educ., vol. 7, no. October, pp. 1–15, 2022, doi: 10.3389/feduc.2022.1030471.

D. Ahlstrom, J. L. Arregle, M. A. Hitt, G. Qian, X. Ma, and D. Faems, “Managing technological, sociopolitical, and institutional change in the new normal,” J. Manag. Stud., vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 411–437, 2020, doi: 10.1111/joms.12569.

G. Hülür and B. Macdonald, “Rethinking social relationships in old age: Digitalization and the social lives of older adults,” Am. Psychol., vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 554–566, 2020, doi: 10.1037/amp0000604.

F. Mishna, E. Milne, M. Bogo, and L. F. Pereira, “Responding to COVID-19: New Trends in Social Workers’ Use of Information and Communication Technology,” Clin. Soc. Work J., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 484–494, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s10615-020-00780-x.

S. Ida, R. Aziz, and W. H. Irawan, “Critical and creative thinking skills to solving math story problems in elementary school students,” J. Tatsqif, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 98–113, 2021, doi: 10.20414/jtq.v19i2.4069.

S. Dolapcioglu and A. Doğanay, “Development of critical thinking in mathematics classes via authentic learning: an action research,” Int. J. Math. Educ. Sci. Technol., vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1363–1386, 2022, doi: 10.1080/0020739X.2020.1819573.

Z. Abidin, A. C. Utomo, V. Pratiwi, and L. Farokhah, “Project-based learning - literacy in improving students’ mathematical reasoning abilities in elementary schools,” JMIE (Journal Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Educ., vol. 4, no. 1, p. 39, 2020, doi: 10.32934/jmie.v4i1.170.

H. C. Çelik and F. Özdemir, “Mathematical thinking as a predictor of critical thinking dispositions of pre-service mathematics teachers,” Journal, Int. Educ., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 0–3, 2020, doi: 10.29329/ijpe.2020.268.6.

S. Suherman and T. Vidákovich, “Assessment of mathematical creative thinking: A systematic review,” Think. Ski. Creat., vol. 44, no. February, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.tsc.2022.101019.

N. P. D. Pramestika, I. G. A. A. Wulandari, and I. W. Sujana, “Enhancement of mathematics critical thinking skills through problem based learning assisted with concrete media,” J. Educ. Technol., vol. 4, no. 3, p. 254, 2020, doi: 10.23887/jet.v4i3.25552.

B. Mainali, “Representation in teaching and learning mathematics,” Int. J. Educ. Math. Sci. Technol., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–21, 2021, doi: 10.46328/ijemst.1111.

C. A. Rodríguez-Nieto, V. F. Moll, and F. M. Rodríguez-Vásquez, “Literature review on networking of theories developed in mathematics education context,” Eurasia J. Math. Sci. Technol. Educ., vol. 18, no. 11, 2022, doi: 10.29333/ejmste/12513.

G. Bimonte, F. S. Tortoriello, and I. Veronesi, “An interdisciplinary educational path to understand the economic phenomena of a fluid and complex world with mathematics,” Soft Comput., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 1491–1501, 2024, doi: 10.1007/s00500-023-08377-5.

M. Develaki, “Comparing crosscutting practices in STEM disciplines: Modeling and reasoning in mathematics, science, and engineering,” Sci. Educ., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 949–979, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s11191-020-00147-1.

E. C. Wittmann, Connecting mathematics and mathematics education: Collected papers on mathematics education as a design science. 2020. doi: 10.1007/9783030615703.

Z. Hawes and D. Ansari, “What explains the relationship between spatial and mathematical skills? A review of evidence from brain and behavior,” Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, vol. 27, no. 3. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, pp. 465–482, 2020. doi: 10.3758/s13423-019-01694-7.

T. Lowrie, D. Harris, T. Logan, and M. Hegarty, “The impact of a spatial intervention program on students’ spatial reasoning and mathematics performance,” J. Exp. Educ., vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 259–277, 2021, doi: 10.1080/00220973.2019.1684869.

A. Mukuka, V. Mutarutinya, and S. Balimuttajjo, “Mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between instruction and students’ mathematical reasoning,” J. Math. Educ., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 73–92, 2021, doi: 10.22342/JME.12.1.12508.73-92.

J. W. Kusuma, U. Jefri, A. Hidayat, and H. Hamidah, “Application of treffinger learning model to improve creative reasoning and mathematical problem solving skills as well as student learning interests,” JTAM (Jurnal Teor. dan Apl. Mat., vol. 4, no. 2, p. 204, 2020, doi: 10.31764/jtam.v4i2.2840.

M. Muskita, B. Subali, and Djukri, “Effects of worksheets base the levels of inquiry in improving critical and creative thinking,” Int. J. Instr., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 519–532, 2020, doi: 10.29333/iji.2020.13236a.

E. F. Husna, M. Adlim, A. Gani, M. Syukri, and M. Iqbal, “Developing STEM-based student worksheet to improve students’ creativity and motivation of learning science,” Sci. Educ., vol. 9, no. 1, p. 57, 2020, doi: 10.24235/sc.educatia.v9i1.6440.

T. Nalkiran and S. Karamustafaoglu, ““Prediction-observation-explanation (POE) method and its efficiency in teaching ‘work, energy, power’ concepts,” Int. J. Assess. Tools Educ., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 497–521, 2020, doi: 10.21449/ijate.727399.

S. Marzuki and B. M. Sabillah, “The implementation of POE (Predict, Observe, Explain) learning model to improve students’ achievement at class XI students of SMA Negeri 10 Makassar,” ELS J. Interdiscip. Stud. Humanit., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 552–559, 2020, doi: 10.34050/elsjish.v3i4.11891.

D. P. Nengsih, I. Koto, A. Defianti, Nirwana, and H. Johan, “The effect of static fluid pressure learning with predict- observe-explain (POE)-oriented student worksheets on science process skills,” J. Pendidik. Fis., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 297–312, 2023, doi: 10.26618/jpf.v11i3.11842.

S. Sarah, A. Khanif, and A. T. Saputra, “The effectiveness of POE (Predict-Observe-Explain) learning model for improving student analytical skills,” JIPF (Jurnal Ilmu Pendidik. Fis., vol. 6, no. 1, p. 23, 2021, doi: 10.26737/jipf.v6i1.1846.

E. N. Setiyani, Z. Hazmi, Z. Baharin, and S. N. Jesse, “The effectiveness of predict observe explain ( POE ) model with phet to improve critical thinking skills of senior high school students,” J. Educ. Technol. Learn. Creat., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 78–87, 2023, doi: 10.37251/jetlc.v1i2.792.

M. N. Ulfa, S. Sutoyo, and T. Prastowo, “The validity of teaching materials using POE model to increase the student’sxcriticalxthinking skills inxjuniorxhigh school on the pressure topic,” Int. J. Innov. Sci. Res. Technol., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1403–1409, 2020, doi: 10.38124/ijisrt20jun604.

Y. D. Pratiwi, L. Bintartik, and A. P. Putra, “Development of POE Learning Model-Based Booklet for Elementary School,” vol. 508, no. Icite, pp. 277–284, 2020, doi: 10.2991/assehr.k.201214.249.

G. Dwirahayu, I. D. Handayani, O. Suhyanto, E. Musyrifah, and D. Sobiruddin, “Development of mathematics teaching-learning material with metaphors approach,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 2157, no. 1, 2022, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/2157/1/012045.

A. Jahic Pettersson, K. Danielsson, and C. J. Rundgren, “‘Traveling nutrients’: how students use metaphorical language to describe digestion and nutritional uptake,” Int. J. Sci. Educ., vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1281–1301, 2020, doi: 10.1080/09500693.2020.1756514.

N. K. S. Febriyanti and M. Putra, “Mathematics learning interest of elementary school students in using metaphorical thinking learning model,” J. Educ. Technol., vol. 4, no. 3, p. 273, 2020, doi: 10.23887/jet.v4i3.26144.

C. Giberti, G. Santi, and C. Spagnolo, “The role of metaphors in interpreting students’ difficulties in operating with percentages: A mixed method study based on large scale assessment,” Eur. J. Sci. Math. Educ., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 297–321, 2023, doi: 10.30935/scimath/12642.

M. T. Stuart and D. Wilkenfeld, “Understanding metaphorical understanding (literally),” Eur. J. Philos. Sci., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1–20, 2022, doi: 10.1007/s13194-022-00479-5.

I. K. Miranda, “Creative Authorship and the Filipina Diva Atang de la Rama,” J. Musicol. Res., vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 297–322, 2021, doi: 10.1080/01411896.2021.1992595.

S. Herbert and G. Williams, “Eliciting mathematical reasoning during early primary problem solving,” Math. Educ. Res. J., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 77–103, 2023, doi: 10.1007/s13394-021-00376-9.

R. Smit, H. Dober, K. Hess, P. Bachmann, and T. Birri, “Supporting primary students’ mathematical reasoning practice: the effects of formative feedback and the mediating role of self-efficacy,” Res. Math. Educ., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 277–300, 2023, doi: 10.1080/14794802.2022.2062780.

A. Angelia, S. Q. Muminov, and D. T. Obafemi, “Development of physics modules with science, environment, technology, and society (SETS) approaches to motion and force material,” Schrödinger J. Phys. Educ., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 78–85, 2023, doi: 10.37251/sjpe.v4i3.694.

T. Kogoya et al., “Developing the value of peace in sport, health, and physical education lecture through traditional games,” Int. J. Hum. Mov. Sport. Sci., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 268–275, 2023, doi: 10.13189/saj.2023.110202.

R. M. Branch, Approach, Instructional Design: The ADDIE, vol. 53, no. 9. 2009.

Q. P. Salasatun and S. L. D. Pramesti, “Pengembangan LKS bangun ruang sisi datar berbasis POE untuk meningkatkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa,” AL-TARBIYAH J. Pendidik. (The Educ. Journal), vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 111–121, 2021, doi: 10.24235/ath.v31i2.9110.

E. Puspita Sari and M. Syofiana, “Lembar Kerja Siswa Berbasis Poe (Predict, Observe, Explain) Kemampuan Berpikir Kreatif Matematis Siswa Smp,” Nabla Dewantara J. Pendidik. Mat., vol. 6, no. November, p. 109, 2021.

A. Mutlu, “Evaluation of students’ scientific process skills through reflective worksheets in the inquiry-based learning environments,” Reflective Pract., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 271–286, 2020, doi: 10.1080/14623943.2020.1736999.

S. Arif and C. A. Sahara, “Development of student worksheet based on POE (predict, observe, and explain) with science literature approach,” Edu Sains J. Pendidik. Sains Mat., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 44–60, 2022, doi: 10.23971/eds.v10i1.3098.

*Journal of Educational Technology and Learning Creativity*,

*2*(1), 41-53. https://doi.org/10.37251/jetlc.v2i1.981

Copyright (c) 2024 Karyawati Endra, Gillian Mae Villaflor

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

- Authors retain copyright and acknowledge that the Journal of Educational Technology and Learning Creativity is the first publisher licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges and earlier and greater citation of published work.